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贝时璋菁英班欧洲研学夏令营日志-2019.07.20

时间:2019-07-25     浏览次数:

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2019暑期欧洲贝时璋菁英班研学夏令营日志

Day 8: 参观马克思故居

  晴好天气仍在继续,在与Alain Zozime教授道别后,我们离开了Evry和法国,开始了新一轮在德国的行程。

  经过数个小时的车程之后,我们来到马克思故居所在地,特里尔城。特里尔,位于德国靠近卢森堡的边界,是德国最古老的城市。曾经作为罗马帝国的军队驻地,拥有超过2000年的历史。而古城驻地的象征‘黑门’-是阿尔卑斯山以北最宏伟、保存最完好的古罗马时代城门。除了大量的古罗马帝国遗迹之外,特里尔更为今人所知的是伟大的哲学家、经济学家、革命理论家和社会学家-马克思(Karl Heinrich Marx)的故乡。

  这座不大的白色房子就是马克思曾经的居所,现在的马克思纪念馆。在200多年前,有个对人类历史和政治产生巨大影响的伟人就出生在这个特里尔随处可见的小房子里。

  马克思故居并不大,十个曾经的房间改造来的展厅,组成了三层小楼的主体,以及一个不大的花园,构成了这个故居的全部。

  每个展厅都是这样的一段德英双语文字砌在墙上,或是介绍马克思的生平、著作、经历,或是介绍他作为马克思主义创始人带给世界的影响。

  马克思人生并不顺遂。攻读博士期间,德国新国王即位,限制了大学学术自由的风气,他不得不把论文寄给Jena大学审稿。因为家庭背景的差异,维持生计的必要,他与燕妮的婚姻被一再推迟。由于开创了马克思主义,与当时的保守势力矛盾剧烈,马克思四处流亡,生活窘迫。

  但是马克思的成就让人难以望其项背。仅仅是渊博的知识就令人咂舌,他的知识领域包括哲学、经济学、法学、宗教、逻辑、历史政治、文学艺术,语言学,工商业实践,还涉及自然科学。他能阅读欧洲许多国家的文字,能用德、法、英三种文字写作。他同恩格斯合著的《马克思恩格斯全集》国际版约160卷,著作等身。

  而他真正伟大的地方是他的思想精华--马克思主义哲学。如果把全世界的人们对他思想的不同解读放在一起,可以填满一个图书馆。我们写下的可能只是最粗浅的解读。

  以唯物史观来看。马克思揭示了人类社会是由生产方式、社会关系等基本架构构成的,而生产方式又决定社会关系。所以人类社会要想发展,就必须选择最先进且契合的生产方式。过去是原始社会、奴隶制、封建制现在是资本主义、社会主义,未来是共产主义。

  和部分片面强调物质重要性的唯物理论不同,马克思主义哲学发现了人的价值。人不是资本主义哲学简单归结的劳动力。“人是一根有思想的苇草”。个人的力量是渺小的,但如果将人的力量凝结在一起,就是社会发展的最大推动力,因为“劳动创造世界”。

  “哲学家们只是用不同的方式解释世界,而问题在于改变世界。

  用哲学家来概括马克思的形象是不够,他更世界上最伟大的革命家。《共产主义宣言》是他和恩格斯的著作,更是点燃世界的革命之火。

  在马克思所生活在的年代,科学技术的进步使得无产阶级蓬勃发展,但广大人民的劳动成果却被剥削阶级所夺走,阶级矛盾高涨,但是无产阶级因为底蕴不足,缺少自己的革命纲领。正是《共产主义宣言》,这一纲领性文件,让无产阶级走上了历史的主舞台。












  Most of the day was on the way. During the morning we packed our luggage, bade farewell to professor Alain, and got on the bus, thus starting the journey to Germany.

  I objected to the bus trip to some extent. It is easy for people to get dizzy when they read or play with phones on a bus, so the only thing left to do is fall asleep or appreciate the scenery outside the windows. And they always end up feeling extremely tired, even if they have done nothing but sitting on a bus for the whole day. It took us six hours to get to Trier, with 45 minutes’ stop to avoid fatigue driving.

  Trier is the oldest city in Germany. It is close to the boundaries between France and Germany, so people here are said to be multilingual, mastering French, Germany and English at the same time. It appears to be more like a small town located in the mountainous area, with a small number of narrow streets and walking people. There are some musicians playing instruments on the square or sitting beside the shopwindow. One accordionist seemed to be fully absorbed in his music, his eyes closed as his head waving with the melodies. The locals were obviously accustomed to these street artists, and most of them walked their own way, as if nothing special was going on. The architecture style here formed a sharp contrast with those of the buildings in France, for the houses along the road appeared to be more regular and neat.

  There were several things which impressed me as we hung around the City. One thing was that when I checked out in a grocery store, I was astonished to be told that they did not accept payment by credit. In my opinion, Credit cards in Europe were similar to the Alipay in China--- You can even use them in the vending machine! While such a medium sized store in Trier still stuck to cash, It may be reasonable to suppose that this city was relatively confined ,remaining uninterrupted by visitors. Another thing was the enthusiasm of German people. When we walked into a chocolate shop, the owner invited us to taste their products .Instead of being impatient when we spent a long time trying to find enough coins, He smiled and helped to count the coins on the table, and said “have a nice day” loudly when we walked out. Similar things happened when I purchased cosmetics in another shop. The staff answered “You are welcome” in a way like singing and laughed happily when I waved goodbye to her. I have long held the stereotypes that Germany are serious while French people are romantic, which is quite the opposite towards my experience in dealing with them. The salesclerk in Evry tended to avoid talking with customers ,and usually greeted you with a emotionless “Merci” when checking out at the counter. Comparatively, here in Trier, People really seemed to enjoy their work, showing an enthusiastic attitude to those they meet during work .I felt quite warm and delighted , smiling all the way as I walked back to the restaurant where we were going to have dinner.

  It was a 45 min drive from Trier to our hotel. We were all delighted to see that the hotel was like a resort villa. And the day ended with our group walking in the field and watching the sunset.

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